Collection of fossil teeth "Spinosaurus & Siroccopteryx maroccensis"
Late Cretaceous epoch, Cenomanian to upper Turonian stages c. 100,5 - 93,9 million years ago, Taouz, Kem Kem Basin, Marocco, private collection from Netherlands.
Pterosaurs from Greek pteron (πτερον) and sauros (σαῦρος), meaning "wing lizard" is an extinct clade of flying reptiles in the order, Pterosauria. They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the Late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous (228 to 66 million years ago). They were the first vertebrates to take to flight. There are eighty five genera encompassing 130 known species, with wingspans ranging from 10 inches to 40 feet. They were widespread and lived in numerous locations across the globe, from China to Germany to the Americas. Their fossils are generally rare in the fossil record because their bones were quite fragile and preserved poorly. Pterosaurs had small bodies, long heavy beaks, large crests, and long membranous wings. The crest of the head came in many shapes, sizes and probably, colors as did the beak. The wings were connected to the body at the waist, thigh or ankle, depending on the species. The primary component of the wings of Pterodactylus and other pterosaurs were made up of a skin and muscle membrane that stretched from the animals' highly elongated fourth fingers of the hands to the hind limbs. It has been known for a while that Pterosaurs had coats of hair-like filaments (pycnofibers) which covered their body but a recent find has proven that they in fact had feathers. Pterosaurs often had long necks, which sometimes had throat pouches similar to pelicans' for catching fish. Most pterosaur skulls were long and full of needle like teeth. However, pterosaurs of the taxonomic family Azhdarchidae, which ruled the Late Cretaceous skies and included Quetzalcoatlus northropi, were toothless. Terrestrial pterosaurs ate carcasses, baby dinosaurs, lizards, eggs, insects and various other animals and water-loving pterosaurs ate a variety of marine life, including fish, squid, crab and other shellfish. Modern birds didn't descend from pterosaurs, birds' ancestors were small, feathered, terrestrial dinosaurs. Around 66 million years ago, at the same time that Tyrannosaurus rex and other large dinosaurs became extinct, pterosaurs also died out. Pterosaurs left no descendants, only fossils. Siroccopteryx is an extinct genus of anhanguerid pterodactyloid pterosaur, known from middle Cretaceous (between the Albian and Cenomanian stages, about 105 million years ago).
Spinosaurus is a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa during the Cenomanian to upper Turonan stages of the Late Cretaceous period, about 100,5 to 93,9 million years ago. The best known species is S.aegytiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S.maroccanus, has been recovered from Marocco. Spinosaurus is the largest of all known terrestial carnivores, other large carnivores comparable to Spinosaurus include theropods such as Tyrannosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus. New estimates published in 2014 and 2018, supported the earlier research, findings that Spinosaurus could reach lengths of 17 meters. Latest estimates suggest a weight of 6,4 to 7,5 metric tons. The skull of Spinosaurus was long, low and narrow, similar to that of a modern crocodilian, and bore straight conical teeth with no serrations. The distinctive neural spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1,65 meters long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure.
This genus was known first from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German palaeontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in early 21st century. Spinosaurus is known to have eaten fish, and most scientists believe that it hunted both terrestial and aquatic prey. Evidence suggests that it was highly semiaquatic, and lived both on land and in water much like modern crocodilians do.
Collection of two spinosaurus teeth fragments and one smaller Siroccopteryx moroccensis teeth. Moderate condition. Age-related wear, fractures and cracks. Repaired. Dirt, dust and deposit. Size of teeth c. 3,9cm x 1,2cm, 2,8cm x 1,1cm & 2,5cm x 0,9cm. Sell as a set.
Geology and paleontology of the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem Group of Eastern Morocco, ZooKeys, 21 Apr 2020.
Pterodactyl: Facts about pteranodon & other pterosaurs, Joseph Castro, Livescience (https://www.livescience.com/24071-pterodactyl-pteranodon-flying-dinosaurs.html)
Prehistoric Wildlife, prehistoric-wildlife.com., 2011.
Pterosaur, New World Encyclopedia (https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pterosaur)
American Museum of Natural History
Greshko Michael, National Geographic, September 2020.
Michael Hopkin, Nature, February 2006.