Qing dynasty, late 19th or early 20th century, Dehua, Fujian, China, private collection from Netherlands
The Qing dynasty (Qīng cháo), officially the Great Qing (also sometimes referred to as the Manchu dynasty) was the last imperial dynasty in China, lasting from 1644 to 1912. It was an era noted for its initial prosperity and tumultuous final years, and for being only the second time that China was not ruled by the Han people. The founders of the Qing dynasty came originally from Manchuria, a northern region sandwiched between China, Mongolia and Siberia. In the early 17th century, the Manchu people, who were from a different tribal-ethnic group called the Jurchens, began to unite against the Ming dynasty. They formed a somewhat military society and mobilized a large army. In April and May 1644, the Manchu army crossed the Great Wall, marched south and entered Beijing. With a Manchu takeover of Beijing imminent, the last Ming ruler, Emperor Chongzhen, hanged himself in a tree near the Forbidden City. In November 1644, a Manchu prince (a five-year-old boy) was crowned as the Shunzhi Emperor: the first Qing ruler of China.
Under the Qing dynasty, China remained somewhat isolated from the outside world. The Qing emperors introduced elements of Manchu language and culture to China. Many of the new Han subjects faced discrimination. Han men were required to cut their hair in Manchu queue (a male hairstyle featuring a high shaved forehead and a long braided ponytail) or face execution. In society, the Manchu people were considered at the top of the social class. The Han Chinese were generally discriminated against. For example Han Chinese and Manchu were not allowed to marry. Han people were also relocated from the power centers of Beijing. This conservative shift reflected on the arts, and there was a general turn against literature and stage plays that were deemed subversive. Despite this opressive atmosphere, some creative work did gather attention, including painting, sculpture, poetry, opera, and porcelain.
In the 19th century, the British began selling opium in China. Opium was used medically in China for centuries, but by the 18th century it was popular recreationally. Many Chinese people became addicted to opium and the goverment soon made the the drug illegal. The British, however, continued to smuggle in opium. When the Chinese government boarded British ships and dumped their opium into ocean, a war broke out. At the time, China had a small and outdated navy. The British ships defeated the Chinese in both the First (1839-1842) and the Second (1856-60) Opium Wars. In the early 20th century, the Qing dynasty began to crumble. The last emperor, Puyi (a six-year-old-boy), officially gave up his throne in 1912 and the Republic of China took over.
Dehua porcelain is more traditionally known in the West as Blanc de Chine, is a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province. It has been produced from the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to the present day. The area along the Fujian coastwas traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over 180 kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as "ivory white" and "snow white". The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory colour. From 17th century onward, Blanc de Chine wares were exported in ever increasing quantities to Europe as Chinese export porcelain and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere.
Guānyīn (Guan Yin or Kuan Yin) is Buddhist boddhisattva associated with mercy and compassion. She is also the patron goddess of mothers, the patroness and protector of seamen and fishermen. The Chinese name Guānyīnis short for Guanshiyin, which means "The One Who Perceives the Sounds of the World".
Beautiful small sized Guānyīn seated in the pose of royal ease (maharajalilasana, rajalilasana) on a finely detailed double lotus pedestal with flowing robes and lotus stems. Good condition. Light pale green celadon-glaze. One finger with repair. Minor firing cracks. Glazing flaws, such as dark spots. glaze flakes an recesses. Minimal abrasion and hairline cracks. Dirt and dust. Size approx. 11,5cm x 10,0cm. Height c. 23,0cm. Weight c. 1029g.