Incense holders "Kangxi"

2200 €

Qing dynasty, Kangxi or Yongzheng period, c. 1700-1735, China, private collection from Finland.

The Qing dynasty (Qīng cháo), officially the Great Qing (also sometimes referred to as the Manchu dynasty) was the last imperial dynasty in China, lasting from 1644 to 1912. It was an era noted for its initial prosperity and tumultuous final years, and for being only the second time that China was not ruled by the Han people. The founders of the Qing dynasty came originally from Manchuria, a northern region sandwiched between China, Mongolia and Siberia. In the early 17th century, the Manchu people, who were from a different tribal-ethnic group called the Jurchens, began to unite against the Ming dynasty. They formed a somewhat military society and mobilized a large army. In April and May 1644, the Manchu army crossed the Great Wall, marched south and entered Beijing. With a Manchu takeover of Beijing imminent, the last Ming ruler, Emperor Chongzhen, hanged himself in a tree near the Forbidden City. In November 1644, a Manchu prince (a five-year-old boy) was crowned as the Shunzhi Emperor: the first Qing ruler of China. The sixty-one year reign of the Kangxi Emperor (1662-1722) was the longest of any emperor of China and marked the beginning of the "High Qing" era, the zenith of the dynasty's social, economic and military power.

Under the Qing dynasty, China remained somewhat isolated from the outside world. The Qing emperors introduced elements of Manchu language and culture to China. Many of the new Han subjects faced discrimination. Han men were required to cut their hair in Manchu queue (a male hairstyle featuring a high shaved forehead and a long braided ponytail) or face execution. In society, the Manchu people were considered at the top of the social class. The Han Chinese were generally discriminated against. For example Han Chinese and Manchu were not allowed to marry. Han people were also relocated from the power centers of Beijing. This conservative shift reflected on the arts, and there was a general turn against literature and stage plays that were deemed subversive. Despite this opressive atmosphere, some creative work did gather attention, including painting, sculpture, poetry, opera, and porcelain.

In the 19th century, the British began selling opium in China. Opium was used medically in China for centuries, but by the 18th century it was popular recreationally. Many Chinese people became addicted to opium and the goverment soon made the the drug illegal. The British, however, continued to smuggle in opium. When the Chinese government boarded British ships and dumped their opium into ocean, a war broke out. At the time, China had a small and outdated navy. The British ships defeated the Chinese in both the First (1839-1842) and the Second (1856-60) Opium Wars. In the early 20th century, the Qing dynasty began to crumble. The last emperor, Puyi (a six-year-old-boy), officially gave up his throne in 1912 and the Republic of China took over .

Chinese guardian lions, or imperial guardian lions, are a traditional Chinese architectural ornament. They are known in colloquial English as lion dogs or foo dogs. The concept, which originated and became popular in Chinese Buddhism, features a pair of highly stylized lions, often one male with a ball (xiù qiú) which represents the material elements and one female with a cub—which represents the element of spirit, were thought to protect the building from harmful spiritual influences and harmful people that might be a threat. Used in imperial Chinese palaces and tombs, the lions subsequently spread to other parts of Asia including Japan, Korea, Philippines, Tibet, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia.

Absolutely gorgeous pair of bisquit porcelain incense holders. Modelled in mirror image, each depicted recumbent guardian lion in pedestal with its bushy tail curled alongside its rear haunches, the detailed head with a fierce expression and a semi-opened mouth revealing sharp fangs. Covered in heavy and thick chocolate brown dip glaze. Good condition. Age-related wear and signs of use. Minimal fractures in glazing. Imperfections from manufacture. Rough areas on the bottom. Bumpy surface, abrasion and minor pinholes. Dirt and dust. Size approx. 15,2cm x 9,5cm x 10,5cm and 15,2cm x 9,4cm x 10,5cm. Total weight c. 800g. Sell as a pair.